Hardwicke's spine-bellied sea snake
Binomial name: Hydrophis hardwickii, John Edward Gray, 1834
The spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis hardwickii ), also commonly known as Hardwicke's sea snake and Hardwicke's spine-bellied sea snake, is a species of venomous elapid sea snake.
The specific name, hardwickii, is in honor of English naturalist Thomas Hardwicke.
- Body short, stout, neck region not less than half as thick at midbody;
- head large; scales squarish or hexagonal, juxtaposed, outer 3-4 rows larger than others, scale rows: males 23-31 around neck, females 27-35, around midbody, males 25-27, females 33-41;
- ventrals small, usually distinct anteriorly, not so posteriorly, in males 114-186, in females 141-230; head shields entire, parietals occasionally divided;
- nostrils superior, nasals in contact with one another;
- prefrontal usually in contact with second upper labial;
- 7-8 upper labials, 3-4 bordering eye; 1 pre- and 1-2 postoculars; 2, rarely 3, anterior temporals; greenish or yellow- olive above, whitish below, 35-50 olive to dark gray dorsal bars, tapering to a point laterally, occasionally encircling body, a narrow dark ventral stripe or broad irregular band occasionally present;
- adults often lack any pattern and are uniform olive to dark gray;
- head pale olive to black, yellow markings on snout present or not. Total length 860 mm (2' 4"), tail length 85 mm (3.3").
This species is located in warm waters:
- Persian Gulf (United Arab Emirates, Iran)
- Indian Ocean (Bangladesh, Burma, Pakistan ?, Sri Lanka, India)
- South China Sea north to the coasts of Fujian and Shandong
- Strait of Taiwan
- Indoaustralian Archipelago
- North coast of Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia)
- the Philippines (Panay etc.)
- Pacific Ocean (Thailand, Indonesia, China, Japan, Papua New Guinea)
hardwickii: Burma, southeast coast of India and the Straits of Malacca, east to Australia and north to China, Philippines, Taiwan, and Japan.
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- Hydrophis hardwickii
- English: Hardwicke's spine-bellied sea snake
- Hydrophis hardwickii, K. L. Sanders et al. (2012)
- Lapemis hardwickii, John W. Ferner et al. (2001)
- Labemis sic hardwickii, Wolfgang Grossmann & Frank Tillack (2001)
- Lapemis hardwickii, Harold Cogger (2000)
- Lapemis curtus hardwickii, Colin John McCarthy in Philippe Golay et al. (1993)
- Lapemis hardwickii, Alice Georgie Cruickshank Grandison (1978)
- Lapemis hardwickii, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
- Lapemis hardwickii, Leonhard Hess Stejneger (1907)
- Enhydris hardwickii, George Albert Boulenger (1896)
- Hydrophis hardwickei, Oskar Boettger (1888)
- Hydrophis hardwickii, Albert Charles Lewis Günther (1864)
- Hypsirina hardwickii, Thomas Hardwicke & John Edward Gray (1835)
- Hypserina hardwickii, Thomas Hardwicke & John Edward Gray (1835)
- Hypsirhina hardwickii, John Edward Gray (1834)
- Lapemis hardwickii, John Edward Gray (1834)