Thai National Parks

Species of Thailand

Mangrove pit viper

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, John Edward Gray, 1832

(In Thai: งูพังกา, ngu phang gaa)

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus is a venomous pit viper species native to India, Bangladesh and Southeast Asia. Common names include: mangrove pit viper, mangrove viper, and shore pit viper.


Males grow to a total length of 66.5 cm, females 90 cm. The maximum tail lengths are then 12.5 cm and 14 cm respectively.

Scales in 25-27 longitudinal rows at midbody; 11-13 upper labials, the first partially or completely united with the nasal; supraocular very narrow, sometimes broken into small scales, 12-15 scales between them; head scales small, subequal, tuberculate or granular; temporal scales keeled.

Body color highly variable: above olive, grayish, to dark purplish brown; below whitish, greenish or brown, uniform or spotted with brown; a light line on scale row one bordering ventrals present or absent; head olive, heavily suffused with brown.

Ventrals: males 160-179, females 168-183; subcaudals: males 74-76, females 56-63, paired; hemipenes without spines.

Common names

Mangrove pit viper, mangrove viper, shore pit viper, purple-spotted pit viper, shore pitviper.

Geographic range

Found in Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra and Java). The type locality is listed as "Singapore".

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Scientific classification

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Common names

  • German: Mangrovenotter
  • English:
    • Shore pit viper
    • Mangrove biper
  • Thai:
    • งูพังกา, ngu phang gaa
    • งูเขียวหางไหม้ลายเสือ, ngu khieow hang mai lai seua


  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus, Tanya Chan-Ard et al. (2015)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014)
  • Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) purpureomaculatus, Patrick David et al. (2011)
  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus, Anita Malhotra & Roger Stephen Thorpe (2004)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Andreas Gumprecht et al. (2004)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Roy W. McDiarmid, Jonathan A. Campbell & T'Shaka A. Touré (1999)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Merel J. Cox et al. (1998)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Ulrich Manthey & Wolfgang Grossmann (1997)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus, Kenneth R. G. Welch (1994)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)

Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)


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Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus - Ko Ngai, Trang
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus - Ko Ngai, Trang
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult) - Kra Buri District, Ranong
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus - Ko Ngai, Trang
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult)
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (juvenile) - Kra Buri District, Ranong
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Range Map

Distribution map of Mangrove pit viper, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus in Thailand
  • Ao Phang-Nga National Park
  • Kantang District, Trang
  • Khura Buri District, Phang Nga
  • Ko Lanta District, Krabi
  • Ko Lanta National Park
  • Ko Ngai
  • Ko Phayam
  • Kra Buri District, Ranong
  • Lam Nam Kra Buri National Park
  • Mueang Krabi District, Krabi
  • Mueang Satun District, Satun
  • Phi Phi Islands
  • Ranong Coast
  • Surin Islands
  • Takua Pa District, Phang Nga
  • Thai Mueang District, Phang Nga
  • Thalang District, Phuket
  • Thung Wa District, Satun
Range map of Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus in Thailand