Thai National Parks

Snakes of Thailand

Species of Thailand

Mangrove pit viper

In Thai: งูพังกา, ngu phang gaa

Binomial name: Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, John Edward Gray, 1832

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus is a venomous pit viper species native to India, Bangladesh and Southeast Asia. Common names include: mangrove pit viper, mangrove viper, and shore pit viper.


Males grow to a total length of 66.5 cm, females 90 cm. The maximum tail lengths are then 12.5 cm and 14 cm respectively.

Scales in 25-27 longitudinal rows at midbody; 11-13 upper labials, the first partially or completely united with the nasal; supraocular very narrow, sometimes broken into small scales, 12-15 scales between them; head scales small, subequal, tuberculate or granular; temporal scales keeled.

Body color highly variable: above olive, grayish, to dark purplish brown; below whitish, greenish or brown, uniform or spotted with brown; a light line on scale row one bordering ventrals present or absent; head olive, heavily suffused with brown.

Ventrals: males 160-179, females 168-183; subcaudals: males 74-76, females 56-63, paired; hemipenes without spines.

Common names

Mangrove pit viper, mangrove viper, shore pit viper, purple-spotted pit viper, shore pitviper.

Geographic range

Found in Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra and Java). The type locality is listed as "Singapore".

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Scientific classification

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Common names

  • German: Mangrovenotter
  • English:
    • Shore pit viper
    • Mangrove biper
  • Thai:
    • งูพังกา, ngu phang gaa
    • งูเขียวหางไหม้ลายเสือ, ngu khieow hang mai lai seua


  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus, Tanya Chan-Ard et al. (2015)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014)
  • Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) purpureomaculatus, Patrick David et al. (2011)
  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus, Anita Malhotra & Roger Stephen Thorpe (2004)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Andreas Gumprecht et al. (2004)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Roy W. McDiarmid, Jonathan A. Campbell & T'Shaka A. Touré (1999)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Merel J. Cox et al. (1998)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Ulrich Manthey & Wolfgang Grossmann (1997)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus, Kenneth R. G. Welch (1994)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
  • Trimeresurus acutimentalis, Franz Werner (1927)
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus, Nelly de Rooij (1917)
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus, Frank Wall (1908)
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus, George Albert Boulenger (1896)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, George Albert Boulenger (1890)
  • Trimeresurus porphyraceus, Ferdinand Stoliczka (1870)
  • Trimeresurus porphyraceus, William Theobald (1868)
  • Trimeresurus purpureus, Albert Charles Lewis Günther (1864)
  • Trimesurus porphyraceus, Edward Blyth (1861)
  • Trimeresurus porphyraceus, Edward Blyth (1861)
  • Trimesurus purpureus, John Edward Gray (1849)
  • Trimesurus carinatus, John Edward Gray (1842)
  • Trimesurus purpureus, John Edward Gray (1842)
  • Trigonocephalus purpureo maculatus, John Edward Gray in George Robert Gray & Thomas Hardwicke (1832)
  • Trimeresurus puniceus nec Cophias punicea, Friedrich Boie (1827)

Free photo downloads

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  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (juvenile)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)


Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult)
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult)
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (juvenile)
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Range Map

Distribution map of Mangrove pit viper, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus in Thailand
  • Ao Phang-Nga National Park
  • Hat Noppharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi National Park
  • Kanchanadit District, Surat Thani
  • Kantang District, Trang
  • Khura Buri District, Phang Nga
  • Ko Lanta District, Krabi
  • Ko Lanta National Park
  • Ko Phayam
  • Kra Buri District, Ranong
  • Mueang Krabi District, Krabi
  • Mueang Satun District, Satun
  • Ranong Coast
  • Surin Islands
Range map of Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus in Thailand