Thai National Parks

Reptiles of Thailand

Species of Thailand

Mangrove pit viper

Thai: งูพังกา, ngu phang gaa

Binomial name: Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, John Edward Gray, 1832

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus is a venomous pit viper species endemic to India and Southeast Asia. Two subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.

Description

Males grow to a total length of 66.5 cm, females 90 cm. The maximum tail lengths are then 12.5 cm and 14 cm respectively.

Scales in 25-27 longitudinal rows at midbody; 11-13 upper labials, the first partially or completely united with the nasal; supraocular very narrow, sometimes broken into small scales, 12-15 scales between them; head scales small, subequal, tuberculate or granular; temporal scales keeled.

Body color highly variable: above olive, grayish, to dark purplish brown; below whitish, greenish or brown, uniform or spotted with brown; a light line on scale row one bordering ventrals present or absent; head olive, heavily suffused with brown.

Ventrals: males 160-179, females 168-183; subcaudals: males 74-76, females 56-63, paired; hemipenes without spines.

Common names

Mangrove pit viper, mangrove viper, shore pit viper, purple-spotted pit viper, shore pitviper.

Geographic range

Found in India (Assam, Andaman Islands), Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra and Java). The type locality is listed as "Singapore".

Subspecies

T. p. andersoni Theobald, 1868 Nicobar mangrove pit viper The Andaman Islands.

T. p. purpureomaculatus Gray, 1832) Mangrove pit viper India (Assam), Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, West Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra and Java.

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Scientific classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Subphylum
Vertebrata
Class
Reptilia
Order
Squamata
Suborder
Serpentes
Family
Viperidae
Genus
Trimeresurus
Species
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Common names

  • German: Mangrovenotter
  • English:
    • Shore pit viper
    • Mangrove biper
  • Thai:
    • งูพังกา, ngu phang gaa
    • งูเขียวหางไหม้ลายเสือ, ngu khieow hang mai lai seua

Synonyms

  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus, Tanya Chan-Ard et al. (2015)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014)
  • Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) purpureomaculatus, Patrick David et al. (2011)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Andreas Gumprecht et al. (2004)
  • Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus, Anita Malhotra & Roger Stephen Thorpe (2004)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Roy W. McDiarmid, Jonathan A. Campbell & T'Shaka A. Touré (1999)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Merel J. Cox et al. (1998)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Ulrich Manthey & Wolfgang Grossmann (1997)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus, Kenneth R. G. Welch (1994)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus purpureomaculatus, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
  • Trimeresurus acutimentalis, Franz Werner (1927)
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus, Nelly de Rooij (1917)
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus, Frank Wall (1908)
  • Lachesis purpureomaculatus, George Albert Boulenger (1896)
  • Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, George Albert Boulenger (1890)
  • Trimeresurus porphyraceus, Ferdinand Stoliczka (1870)
  • Trimeresurus porphyraceus, William Theobald (1868)
  • Trimeresurus purpureus, Albert Charles Lewis Günther (1864)
  • Trimeresurus porphyraceus, Edward Blyth (1861)
  • Trimesurus porphyraceus, Edward Blyth (1861)
  • Trimesurus purpureus, John Edward Gray (1849)
  • Trimesurus purpureus, John Edward Gray (1842)
  • Trimesurus carinatus, John Edward Gray (1842)
  • Trigonocephalus purpureo maculatus, John Edward Gray in George Robert Gray & Thomas Hardwicke (1832)
  • Trimeresurus puniceus nec Cophias punicea, Friedrich Boie (1827)

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Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult)

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult)

Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Thai National Parks

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult)

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (adult)

Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Thai National Parks

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (juvenile)

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus (juvenile)

Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Thai National Parks

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Copyright

Distribution map of Mangrove pit viper, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus in Thailand
  • Ao Phang-Nga National Park
  • Hat Noppharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi National Park
  • Kanchanadit District, Surat Thani
  • Kantang District, Trang
  • Khura Buri District, Phang Nga
  • Ko Lanta District, Krabi
  • Ko Lanta National Park
  • Ko Phayam
  • Kra Buri District, Ranong
  • Mueang Krabi District, Krabi
  • Mueang Satun District, Satun
  • Ranong Coast
  • Surin Islands

Range map of Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus in Thailand

Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The data is not necessarily accurate or complete.

Special thanks to Ton Smits, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Ian Dugdale and many others for their contribution for range data.

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