Species of Thailand

White-lipped pit viper

Trimeresurus albolabris, John Edward Gray, 1842

(In Thai: งูเขียวหางไหม้ท้องเหลือง, ngu khieow hang mai thong lueang)

Trimeresurus albolabris, the white-lipped pit viper, is a venomous pit viper species endemic to Southeast Asia.

Description

Maximum total length males 600 mm, females 810 mm; maximum tail length males 120 mm, females 130 mm.

Head scalation consists of 10-11(12) upper labials, the first partially or completely fused to the nasal. Head scales small, subequal, feebly imbricate, smooth or weakly keeled. The supraoculars are narrow (occasionally enlarged and undivided) with 8-12 interocular scales between them. Temporal scales smooth.

Midbody has 29 (rarely 19) longitudinal dorsal scale rows. The ventral scales are 155–166 in males, 152–176 in females. The subcaudals are paired, 60–72 in males, 49–66 in females. The hemipenes are without spines.

Color pattern: green above, the side of the head below the eyes is yellow, white or pale green, much lighter than rest of head. The belly is green, yellowish or white below. A light ventrolateral stripe is present in all males, but absent in females. The end of tail is not mottled brown.

Common names

Common names include green tree pit viper, white-lipped pit viper, white-lipped tree viper, white-lipped green pit viper and white-lipped bamboo pit viper.

Geographic range

Found in Nepal northeastern India (Assam and Jharkhand), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, southern China (Fukien, Hainan, Kwangsi, Kwangtung), Hong Kong, Macau, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, Sumba, Roti, Kisar, Wetar). The type locality given is "China".

Taxonomy

Giannasi et al. (2001) raised insularis and septentrionalis to species level.

Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) transferred this species (and a number of others) to the genus Cryptelytrops. David et al. (2011) returned it to the genus Trimeresurus and assigned it the subgenus Trimeresurus, creating the new combination Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) albolabris.

Diet

Its meals consist of birds, small frogs, and small mammals. This snake doesn't strike and release its prey; like many arboreal snakes, it strikes and holds on to the prey item until it dies.

Venom

Results of bites from this species range from mild envenoming to death. The venom of white-lipped pitviper contains procoagulant properties. There have been numerous reported bites with few fatalities.

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Scientific classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Reptilia
Order
Squamata
Suborder
Serpentes
Family
Viperidae
Genus
Trimeresurus
Species
Trimeresurus albolabris

Common names

  • German: Weisslippen-Bambusotter
  • English:
    • White-lipped pit viper
    • Green pit viper
    • White-lipped tree viper
    • White-lipped bamboo viper
    • White-lipped island pit viper
    • Northern white-lipped pit viper
    • White-lipped green pit viper
  • Thai: งูเขียวหางไหม้ท้องเหลือง, ngu khieow hang mai thong lueang

Subspecies

  • T. a. albolabris, John Edward Gray, 1842

    Common name: White-lipped pit viper

    Range: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Hong Kong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan), India (Assam and Nicobar Islands), Indonesia (Sumatra, Bangka, western Java and Madura), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.

  • T. a. insularis, Eugen Kramer, 1977

    Common name: White-lipped island pit viper

    Range: Indonesia: eastern Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Adonara, Lembata, Pantar, Alor, Roti, Semau, Timor, Wetar, Kisar and Romang.

  • T. a. septentrionalis, Eugen Kramer, 1977

    Common name: Northern white-lipped pit viper

    Range: Northern India (Kashmir) and Nepal.

Synonyms

  • Cryptelytrops albolabris, Tanya Chan-Ard et al. (2015)
  • Trimeresurus albolabris, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014)
  • Trimeresurus (Trimeresurus) albolabris, Patrick David et al. (2011)
  • Cryptelytrops albolabris, Anita Malhotra & Roger Stephen Thorpe (2004)
  • Trimeresurus albolabris, Roy W. McDiarmid, Jonathan A. Campbell & T'Shaka A. Touré (1999)
  • Trimeresurus albolabris albolabris, Merel J. Cox et al. (1998)
  • Trimeresurus albolabris, Ulrich Manthey & Wolfgang Grossmann (1997)
  • Trimeresurus albolabris albolabris, Kenneth R. G. Welch (1994)
  • Trimeresurus albolabris albolabris, Urs Regenass & Eugen Kramer (1981)
  • Trimeresurus albolabris albolabris, Eugen Kramer (1977)

Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Photos

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Trimeresurus albolabris (female) - Kaeng Krachan NP
Trimeresurus albolabris (male) - Tha Yang District, Phetchaburi
Trimeresurus albolabris (female) - Kaeng Krachan NP
Trimeresurus albolabris (male) - Kaeng Krachan NP
Trimeresurus albolabris (juvenile, male) - Kaeng Krachan NP
Trimeresurus albolabris (juvenile, female) - Kaeng Krachan NP

Range Map

Distribution map of White-lipped pit viper, Trimeresurus albolabris in Thailand
  • Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo
  • Ban Bueng District, Chonburi
  • Ban Lat District, Phetchaburi
  • Ban Mi District, Lopburi
  • Ban Na San District, Surat Thani
  • Ban Phaeo District, Samut Sakhon
  • Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi
  • Ban Ta Khun District, Surat Thani
  • Bang Bon District, Bangkok
  • Bang Bua Thong District, Nonthaburi
  • Bang Khonthi District, Samut Songkhram
  • Bang Kruai District, Nonthaburi
  • Bang Len District, Nakhon Pathom
  • Bang Saphan District, Prachuap Khiri Khan
  • Chai Badan District, Lopburi
  • Chang Klang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat
  • Chanuman District, Amnat Charoen
  • Damnoen Saduak District, Ratchaburi
  • Dan Khun Thot District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Don Chedi District, Suphan Buri
  • Don Mueang District, Bangkok
  • Hua Hin District, Prachuap Khiri Khan
  • Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Huai Yang Waterfall National Park
  • Kaeng Krachan District, Phetchaburi
  • Kaeng Krachan National Park
  • Kaeng Tana National Park
  • Kamphaeng Saen District, Nakhon Pathom
  • Kanchanadit District, Surat Thani
  • Kham Thale So District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Khao Dinsor (Chumphon Raptor Center)
  • Khao Yai National Park
  • Khiri Rat Nikhom District, Surat Thani
  • Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Khon Buri District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Krathum Baen District, Samut Sakhon
  • Kui Buri District, Prachuap Khiri Khan
  • Kui Buri National Park
  • Lat Phrao District, Bangkok
  • Mae Wong National Park
  • Mueang Chainat District, Chainat
  • Mueang Chumphon District, Chumphon
  • Mueang Kanchanaburi District, Kanchanaburi
  • Mueang Lopburi District, Lopburi
  • Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Mueang Nakhon Sawan District, Nakhon Sawan
  • Mueang Nonthaburi District, Nonthaburi
  • Mueang Pathum Thani District, Pathum Thani
  • Mueang Phetchaburi District, Phetchaburi
  • Mueang Phichit District, Phichit
  • Mueang Prachuap Khiri Khan District, Prachuap Khiri Khan
  • Mueang Samut Sakhon District, Samut Sakhon
  • Mueang Samut Songkhram District, Samut Songkhram
  • Mueang Saraburi District, Saraburi
  • Mueang Suphanburi District, Suphan Buri
  • Mueang Surat Thani District, Surat Thani
  • Mueang Ubon Ratchathani District, Ubon Ratchathani
  • Na Yong District, Trang
  • Nakhon Chai Si District, Nakhon Pathom
  • Nam Nao National Park
  • Nam Phong District, Khon Kaen
  • Nong Khae District, Saraburi
  • Pa Klang Ao Forest Park
  • Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Pak Kret District, Nonthaburi
  • Pak Thong Chai District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Pang Sida National Park
  • Pathio District, Chumphon
  • Phanom District, Surat Thani
  • Phaya Thai District, Bangkok
  • Pho Thong District, Ang Thong
  • Photharam District, Ratchaburi
  • Phra Khanong District, Bangkok
  • Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya District, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
  • Phra Pradaeng District, Samut Prakan
  • Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Phu Suan Sai National Park
  • Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Phunphin District, Surat Thani
  • Prachantakham District, Prachinburi
  • Prawet District, Bangkok
  • Ratsada District, Trang
  • Sai Mai District, Bangkok
  • Sai Yok National Park
  • Sakaerat Environmental Research Station
  • Sam Chuk District, Suphan Buri
  • Sam Phran District, Nakhon Pathom
  • Sattahip District, Chonburi
  • Sawi District, Chumphon
  • Selaphum District, Roi Et
  • Si Racha District, Chonburi
  • Song Phi Nong District, Suphan Buri
  • Suan Phueng District, Ratchaburi
  • Sung Noen District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Ta Phraya National Park
  • Tat Mok National Park
  • Tha Maka District, Kanchanaburi
  • Tha Sae District, Chumphon
  • Tha Yang District, Phetchaburi
  • Thap Sakae District, Prachuap Khiri Khan
  • Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi
  • Thong Pha Phum National Park
  • Thung Yai District, Nakhon Si Thammarat
  • Umphang District, Tak
  • Watthana Nakhon District, Sa Kaeo
  • Wichian Buri District, Phetchabun
  • Yan Ta Khao District, Trang
Range map of Trimeresurus albolabris in Thailand

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