Species of Thailand
Rhabdophis subminiatus, Hermann Schlegel, 1837
(In Thai: งูลายสาบคอแดง, ngu lai saap khor daeng)
Rhabdophis subminiatus, commonly called the red-necked keelback, is a species of venomous snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to Asia.
R. subminiatus has a greenish hue with red and yellow regions near the head. It grows to 70 to 90 cm round=0.5 in total length (including tail).
Habitat and diet
The red-necked keelback generally lives near ponds, where it consumes frogs and fish.
Snakebite and Venom
Rhabdophis subminiatus is a rear-fanged species and was previously thought to be harmless. However, following one fatal and several near-fatal envenomations, the toxicity of its venom was investigated. As a result, it has recently been reclassified as a dangerous species. Rear-fanged snakes need to bite and hold on, or repeatedly bite, to have any effect on humans. A chewing action facilitates envenomation as the venom ducts open to fangs that are externally grooved (not hollow) and are posterior in the oral cavity.R. subminiatus has enlarged and non-grooved teeth. R. subminiatus has two enlarged teeth in the back of the snake’s jaw. Located in the upper jaw is a gland known as the Duvernoy's glands which produces an extremely venomous secretion.
Symptoms caused by venom
When the snake bites, the salivary venom mixture is not injected, but it flows into the punctures produced by the upper jaw’s rear teeth of R. subminiatus, which can penetrate the skin of humans. The venom from R. subminiatus has been responsible for internal hemorrhaging, including hemorrhaging of the brain. As well as nausea, coagulopathy, and even disseminated intravascular coagulation. Also, when the venom was tested on animals, renal failure was reported. Caution should be taken when dealing with patients who have been bite by the red-necked keelback snake. There should be no further injury such as injections because this may cause excessive bleeding in the bite victim. Although most human bites from R. subminiatus are involved with the front teeth and do not cause adverse effects, rare bites from the rear fangs can be lethal.
Two subspecies are recognized as being valid, including the nominotypical subspecies.
- Rhabdophis subminiatus helleri
- Rhabdophis subminiatus subminiatus
The trinomial authority in parentheses indicates that the subspecies was originally described in a genus other than Rhabdophis.
The subspecific name, helleri, is in honor of American zoologist Edmund Heller.
The red-necked keelback can be found in the following areas of the world:
- Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi ?)
- Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Burma
- West Malaysia, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal
- India (Assam, West Bengal district, Sikkim; Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar - Papum Pare district, Mizoram a typo|Selesih}}, World Bank Road)
- China (Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, Hainan)
The subspecies R. s. helleri can be found in the following locations:
- Hong Kong
- India (West Bengal-Jalpaiguri)
- People's Republic of China
- North Vietnam
- South Vietnam
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This species has nuchal glands, one of very few species of snakes in the world which is both venomous and poisonous. The only other species in Thailand which has nuchal glands is Rhabdophis nigrocinctus in same genus.
- Rhabdophis subminiatus
- German: Rothals-Wassernatter
- English: Red-necked keelback
- Thai: งูลายสาบคอแดง, ngu lai saap khor daeng
Rhabdophis subminiatus helleri, Karl Patterson Schmidt, 1925
Rhabdophis subminiatus subminiatus, Hermann Schlegel, 1837
- Rhabdophis subminiatus, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus helleri, Nguyen Van Sang et al. (2009)
- Rhabdophis subminiata, R. C. Sharma (2004)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus, Merel J. Cox et al. (1998)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus, Ulrich Manthey & Wolfgang Grossmann (1997)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus helleri, Ermi Zhao et al. (1986)
- Rhabdophis subminiata helleri, Edward Harrison Taylor (1965)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus subminiatus, Edward Harrison Taylor (1965)
- Rhabdophis subminiata, E. V. Malnate (1960)
- Rhabdophis himalayanus laobaoensis, fide Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
- Natrix subminiata, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus, René Léon Bourret (1936)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus subminiatus, René Léon Bourret (1936)
- Natrix subminiata helleri, R. Mell (1931)
- ?Natrix subminiata hongkongensis, R. Mell (1931)
- Natrix subminiata subminiata, R. Mell (1931)
- Natrix helleri, Karl Patterson Schmidt (1925)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus helleri, Karl Patterson Schmidt (1925)
- Natrix subminiata, Thomas Barbour (1912)
- Tropidonotus subminiatus, Frank Wall (1908)
- Pseudoxenodon intermedius, Axel Johan Einar Lönnberg (1899)
- Tropidonotus subminiatus, George Albert Boulenger (1893)
- ? Tropidonotus manadensis, Albert Charles Lewis Günther (fide Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach) (1873)
- Tropidonotus subminiatus, Albert Charles Lewis Günther (1858)
- Amphiesma subminiatum, André Marie Constant Duméril & Gabriel Bibron (1854)
- Rhabdophis subminiatus, Leopold Fitzinger (1843)
- Tropidonotus subminiatus, Hermann Schlegel (1837)
- Natrix subminiatus, Friedrich Boie (1827)