Species of Thailand
Southern pig-tailed macaque
Binomial name: Macaca nemestrina, Carolus Linnaeus, 1766
The southern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) is a medium-sized Old World monkey.
Etymology and taxonomy
The species epithet, nemestrina, is an adjective (derived from Latin Nemestrinus, the god of groves) modified to agree in gender with the feminine generic name.
It formerly included the northern pig-tailed, Pagai Island, and Siberut macaques as subspecies.
Macaca nemestrina can reach a weight of 5–15 kg in large males. These monkeys are buff-brown with a darker back and lighter lower parts of the body. Their common name refers to the short tail held semi-erect and reminiscent of the tail of a pig.
Behaviour and ecology
They are mainly terrestrial but they also are skilled climbers. Unlike almost all primates they love water. They live in large groups split into smaller groups during the day when they are looking for food. They are omnivorous, feeding mainly on fruits, seeds, berries, cereals, fungi and invertebrates.
There is a hierarchy among males, based on the strength, and among females, based on heredity. Thus, the daughter of the dominant female will immediately be placed above all other females in the group. The dominant female leads the group, while the male role is more to manage conflict within the group and to defend it.
Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 3–5 years. Female gestation lasts about 6 months. She will give birth to one infant every two years. Weaning occurs at 4–5 months.
Habitat and distribution
This macaque is mostly found in rainforest up to 2000 meters, but will also enter plantations and gardens.
It is found in the southern half of the Malay Peninsula (only just extending into southernmost Thailand), Borneo, Sumatra and Bangka Island.
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- Macaca nemestrina
- Pig-tailed macaque
- Pigtail macaque
- Southern pig-tailed macaque
- Sundaland pigtail macaque
- French: Macaque à queue de cochon
- Macaca nucifera, Henri Jacob Victor Sody (1936)
- Macaca broca, Gerrit Smith Miller, Jr (1906)
- Macaca brachyurus, Charles Hamilton Smith (1842)
- Macaca maimon, Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1839)
- Macaca libidinosus, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1826)
- Macaca carpolegus, Thomas Stamford Raffles (1821)
- Macaca fusca, George Shaw (1800)
- Macaca longicruris, Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link (1795)
- Macaca platypygos, Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber (1774)
- Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary
- Khao Sok National Park
Range map of Macaca nemestrina in Thailand
Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The data is not necessarily accurate or complete.
Special thanks to Ton Smits, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Ian Dugdale and many others for their contribution for range data.
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