Binomial name: Cinnyris jugularis, Carolus Linnaeus, 1766
The olive-backed sunbird (Cinnyris jugularis), also known as the yellow-bellied sunbird, is a species of sunbird found from Southern Asia to Australia.
In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the olive-backed sunbird in his Ornithologie based on a specimen collected in the Philippines. He used the French name Le petit grampereau des Philippines and the Latin Certhia Philippensis Minor. Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. When in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition, he added 240 species that had been previously described by Brisson. One of these was the olive-backed sunbird. Linnaeus included a brief description, coined the binomial name Certhia jugularis and cited Brisson's work. The specific name jugularis is Medieval Latin for 'of the throat'. This species is now placed in the genus Cinnyris that was introduced by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in 1816. Currently, there are 21 subspecies described, but there is a growing body of evidence to suggest these subspecies may represent multiple cryptic species.
They are small songbirds, at most 12 cm long. In most subspecies, the underparts of both male and female are bright yellow, the backs are a dull brown colour. The forehead, throat and upper breast of the adult male is a dark, metallic blue-black. In the Philippines the males of some subspecies have an orange band on the chest, in Wallacea and northern New Guinea some subspecies have most of the underparts blackish, and in southern China and adjacent parts of Vietnam most of the underparts of the male are greyish-white.
Distribution and habitat
The olive-backed sunbird is common across southern China and Southeast Asia to Queensland and the Solomon Islands. Originally from mangrove habitat, the olive-backed sunbird has adapted well to humans, and is now common even in fairly densely populated areas, even forming their nests in human dwellings.
The birds mate between the months of April and August in the Northern Hemisphere, and between August and January in the Southern Hemisphere. Both the male and the female assist in building the nest which is flask-shaped, with an overhanging porch at the entrance, and a trail of hanging material at the bottom end.
After building the nest, the birds abandon the nest for about a week before the female returns to lay one or two greenish-blue eggs. The eggs take a further week to hatch. The female may leave the nest for short periods during the day during incubation. After the chicks have hatched, both male and female assist in the care of the young, which leave the nest about two or three weeks later.
The sunbirds are a group of very small Old World passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Their flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering, but usually perch to feed most of the time.
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Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Aves Order Passeriformes Family Nectariniidae Genus Cinnyris Species Cinnyris jugularis
Least Concern (IUCN3.1)
Olive-backed sunbird (juvenile)
Amphawa District, Samut Songkhram Ao Phang-Nga National Park Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Ban Bueng District, Chonburi Ban Chang District, Rayong Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Ban Lat District, Phetchaburi Ban Phai District, Khon Kaen Ban Pho District, Chachoengsao Bang Kruai District, Nonthaburi Bang Lamung District, Chonburi Bang Len District, Nakhon Pathom Bang Pa In District, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Bang Pahan District, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Bang Pakong District, Chachoengsao Bang Phra Non-Hunting Area Bang Pu Recreation Centre Bang Saphan Noi District, Prachuap Khiri Khan Bangkok Province Borabue District, Maha Sarakham Bueng Boraped Non-Hunting Area Bueng Khong Long Non-Hunting Area Chae Hom District, Lampang Chae Son National Park Chaiya District, Surat Thani Chaiyo District, Ang Thong Chaloem Phra Kiat District, Saraburi Chaloem Phrakiat Thai Prachan National Park Chiang Dao District, Chiang Mai Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary Chiang Khan District, Loei Chiang Khong District, Chiang Rai Chiang Saen District, Chiang Rai Doi Inthanon National Park Doi Lo District, Chiang Mai Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park Doi Phu Kha National Park Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Doi Suthep-Pui National Park Dong Kheng Forest Park Erawan National Park Fang District, Chiang Mai Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary Hang Chat District, Lampang Hat Chao Mai National Park Hat Khanom - Mu Koh Thale Tai National Park Hat Noppharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi National Park Hat Wanakon National Park Hat Yai District, Songkhla Hua Hin District, Prachuap Khiri Khan Huai Chorakhe Mak Reservoir Non-Hunting Area Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary Huai Krachao District, Kanchanaburi Huai Talat Reservoir Non-Hunting Area In Buri District, Sing Buri Kabin Buri District, Prachinburi Kaeng Khoi District, Saraburi Kaeng Krachan District, Phetchaburi Kaeng Krachan National Park Kaeng Krung National Park Kaeng Som Maew Queen Sirikit Forest Park Kamphaeng Saen District, Nakhon Pathom Kanthararom District, Sisaket Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham Kaset Sombun District, Chaiyaphum Khanom District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary Khao Chamao - Khao Wong National Park Khao Chong Khao Dinsor (Chumphon Raptor Center) Khao Khiao - Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary Khao Khitchakut National Park Khao Kradong Forest Park Khao Laem National Park Khao Laem Ya National Park Khao Lak - Lam Ru National Park Khao Luang National Park Khao Nan National Park Khao Nang Panthurat Forest Park Khao Phanom Bencha National Park Khao Phra - Bang Khram Wildlife Sanctuary Khao Phra Thaeo Wildlife Sanctuary Khao Pra Wihan National Park Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary Khao Sok National Park Khao Yai National Park Khao Yoi District, Phetchaburi Khemarat District, Ubon Ratchathani Khlong Hoi Khong District, Songkhla Khlong Kaeo Waterfall National Park Khlong Lan National Park Khlong Luang District, Pathum Thani Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary Khlong Phanom National Park Khok Sung District, Sa Kaeo Khon San District, Chaiyaphum Khuan Khanun District, Phatthalung Khun Chae National Park Khun Tan District, Chiang Rai Khung Kraben Non-Hunting Area Khura Buri District, Phang Nga Klaeng District, Rayong Ko Lanta National Park Ko Libong Ko Phayam Ko Phra Thong Ko Samui District, Surat Thani Ko Sichang District, Chonburi Ko Tao Kui Buri National Park Kumphawapi District, Udon Thani La-ngu District, Satun Laem Ngop District, Trat Laem Pak Bia Laem Son National Park Mae Ai District, Chiang Mai Mae Mo District, Lampang Mae Ping National Park Mae Rim District, Chiang Mai Mae Sot District, Tak Mae Taeng District, Chiang Mai Mae Wong National Park Mancha Khiri District, Khon Kaen Mu Ko Chang National Park Mu Ko Chumphon National Park Mu Ko Phetra National Park Muak Lek District, Saraburi Mueang Buriram District, Buriram Mueang Chaiyaphum District, Chaiyaphum Mueang Chiang Mai District, Chiang Mai Mueang Chiang Rai District, Chiang Rai Mueang Chonburi District, Chonburi Mueang Chumphon District, Chumphon Mueang Kalasin District, Kalasin Mueang Kamphaeng Phet District, Kamphaeng Phet Mueang Kanchanaburi District, Kanchanaburi Mueang Khon Kaen District, Khon Kaen Mueang Krabi District, Krabi Mueang Lampang District, Lampang Mueang Lamphun District, Lamphun Mueang Lopburi District, Lopburi Mueang Maha Sarakham District, Maha Sarakham Mueang Nakhon Nayok District, Nakhon Nayok Mueang Nakhon Pathom District, Nakhon Pathom Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District, Nakhon Ratchasima Mueang Nakhon Si Thammarat District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Mueang Nan District, Nan Mueang Nong Khai District, Nong Khai Mueang Nonthaburi District, Nonthaburi Mueang Pathum Thani District, Pathum Thani Mueang Pattani District, Pattani Mueang Phang Nga District, Phang Nga Mueang Phatthalung District, Phatthalung Mueang Phetchabun District, Phetchabun Mueang Phetchaburi District, Phetchaburi Mueang Phichit District, Phichit Mueang Phitsanulok District, Phitsanulok Mueang Phuket District, Phuket Mueang Prachinburi District, Prachinburi Mueang Ratchaburi District, Ratchaburi Mueang Rayong District, Rayong Mueang Sa Kaeo District, Sa Kaeo Mueang Samut Sakhon District, Samut Sakhon Mueang Samut Songkhram District, Samut Songkhram Mueang Satun District, Satun Mueang Sisaket District, Sisaket Mueang Songkhla District, Songkhla Mueang Sukhothai District, Sukhothai Mueang Suphanburi District, Suphan Buri Mueang Surat Thani District, Surat Thani Mueang Tak District, Tak Mueang Udon Thani District, Udon Thani Mueang Uttaradit District, Uttaradit Nam Nao National Park Nam Phong National Park Namtok Phlio National Park Namtok Sam Lan National Park Non Din Daeng District, Buriram Non Thai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Nong Bong Khai Non-Hunting Area Nong Song Hong District, Khon Kaen Nong Thung Thong Non-Hunting Area Nong Ya Plong District, Phetchaburi Nong Yai Area Development Project Under Royal Init Ob Khan National Park Pa Sak Chonlasit Dam Non-Hunting Area Pa Sang District, Lamphun Pachee River Wildlife Sanctuary Pae Mueang Pee Forest Park Pak Chong District, Nakhon Ratchasima Pak Kret District, Nonthaburi Pak Phanang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Pak Phli District, Nakhon Nayok Pak Thale Pak Thong Chai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Pang Sida National Park Pathio District, Chumphon Pha Daeng National Park Pha Hin Ngam National Park Pha Taem National Park Phan District, Chiang Rai Phanat Nikhom District, Chonburi Phato District, Chumphon Phatthana Nikhom District, Lopburi Phimai District, Nakhon Ratchasima Pho Prathap Chang District, Phichit Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya District, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Phu Chong Na Yoi National Park Phu Foi Lom National Park Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park Phu Khiao Wildlife Sanctuary Phu Langka National Park Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary Phu Pha Thoep National Park Phu Ruea National Park Phu Sa Dok Bua National Park Phu Soi Dao National Park Phu Suan Sai National Park Phu Toei National Park Phu Wiang National Park Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary Phunphin District, Surat Thani Phutthamonthon District, Nakhon Pathom Pran Buri District, Prachuap Khiri Khan Pran Buri Forest Park Ratchasan District, Chachoengsao Sai Noi District, Nonthaburi Sai Yok District, Kanchanaburi Sai Yok National Park Sakaerat Environmental Research Station Salak Pra Wildlife Sanctuary Samae San Island Samut Prakan Province San Sai District, Chiang Mai Sanam Bin Reservoir Non-Hunting Area Sanam Chai Khet District, Chachoengsao Sattahip District, Chonburi Sawi District, Chumphon Si Racha District, Chonburi Si Satchanalai District, Sukhothai Si Satchanalai National Park Si Thep District, Phetchabun Sikao District, Trang Similan Islands Sirinat National Park Sri Nakarin Dam National Park Sri Phang-nga National Park Su-ngai Kolok District, Narathiwat Suk Samran District, Ranong Sung Men District, Phrae Surin Islands Ta Phraya National Park Tai Rom Yen National Park Takua Pa District, Phang Nga Taphan Hin District, Phichit Tarutao National Marine Park Tat Mok National Park Tha Chang District, Sing Buri Tha Sala District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Tha Takiap District, Chachoengsao Tha Yang District, Phetchaburi Thai Mueang District, Phang Nga Thalang District, Phuket Thale Ban National Park Thale Noi Non-Hunting Area Than Sadet - Koh Pha-Ngan National Park Thanyaburi District, Pathum Thani Thao Kosa Forest Park Thap Lan National Park Thawat Buri District, Roi Et Thung Salaeng Luang National Park Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary Ton Nga-Chang Wildlife Sanctuary Ton Pariwat Wildlife Sanctuary Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary Wang Chan District, Rayong Wang Mai Forest Restoration Project Wang Nam Yen District, Sa Kaeo Wang Saphung District, Loei Wapi Pathum District, Maha Sarakham Wat Phai Lom & Wat Ampu Wararam Non-Hunting Area Watthana Nakhon District, Sa Kaeo Wiang Kaen District, Chiang Rai Wiang Lo Wildlife Sanctuary Yan Ta Khao District, Trang Range map of Cinnyris jugularis in Thailand
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