Species of Thailand
Himalayan mountain pit viper
Thai: งูหางแฮ่มภูเขา, ngu hang haem phukhao
Binomial name: Ovophis monticola, Albert Charles Lewis Günther, 1864
Ovophis monticola is a venomous pitviper species found in Asia. Currently, five subspecies are recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here. Recent taxonomic work suggests that most of these should be considered as separate species. IUCN has already evaluated O. m. makazayazaya as Ovophis makazayazaya.
Total length of males 49 cm (19¼ inches), of females 110 cm (43¼ inches); tail length of males 8 cm (3⅛ inches), of females 15 cm (5⅞ inches).
The head has a short snout, a little more than twice the length of the diameter of the eye. The crown is covered by small scales rather than large shields, while the scales are usually smooth, feebly imbricate. The first upper labial is not fused to the nasal and is completely separated by a suture. The supraoculars are large, 5-9 scales in a line between them. The internasals are usually not in contact with one another, separated by 2 small suprapostrostral scales. There are 7-10 upper labials, the second of which is usually fused to the scale bordering the facial sensory pit anteriorly. The fourth and fifth upper labials are beneath the eye, but separated from orbit by a series of 2-4 small scales.
The body is stout. The dorsal scales are smooth or weakly keeled, in 23-25, occasionally in 19 or 21 longitudinal rows at midbody. Ventral scales and subcaudals (Myanmar, northeastern India and adjacent areas of China and Thailand) 137-176 and 36-62 respectively, subcaudals mixed paired and single, occasionally all unpaired (ventrals and subcaudals for southern China, Vietnam, Laos: 127-144 and 36-54, and Malaysian Peninsula: 133-137 and 22-28 respectively Smith 1943:509).
Mountain pitviper, mountain viper, Chinese pit viper, spotted pit viper, Arisan habu, mountain pit viper, Chinese mountain pit viper. Bengali name: পাহাড়ী বোড়া সাপ (Pahari boda sap).
Found in Asia in Nepal, India (Assam, Sikkim, Mizoram), Bangladesh (stated on the subspecies table), Myanmar, Tibet, China (Zhejiang, Fujian, Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet), Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, West Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (Sumatra). The type locality is described as "Sikkim" (India).
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- Ovophis monticola
- German: Berg-Grubenotter
- Chinese mountain pit viper
- Mountain pit viper
- Thai: งูหางแฮ่มภูเขา, ngu hang haem phukhao
Ovophis monticola convictus, Ferdinand Stoliczka, 1870
Common name: Indo-Malayan mountain pitviper
Range: Indonesia (Sumatra), West Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam as far north as the central Annam Mountains.
Ovophis monticola meridionalis, Alphonse Richard Hoge & Sylvia A. R. W. Romano-Hoge, 1981
Range: Cambodia, Laos, West Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam
Ovophis monticola monticola, Albert Charles Lewis Günther, 1864
Common name: Mountain pitviper
Range: Bangladesh (Chittagong Hill Tracts), China (Sichuan, Tibet Autonomous Region, Yunnan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal), Myanmar (Chin, Kachin and Shan) and Nepal.
Ovophis monticola orientalis, Schmidt, 1925
Common name: Oriental mountain pitviper
Range: China (Fukien, Chekiang), Hong Kong
Ovophis monticola zayuensis, Yao-Ming Jiang, 1977
Common name: Zayuan mountain pitviper
Range: China, Tibet Autonomous Region: in Zayü and Mêdog counties at 1, 800-2, 200 m (5, 900-7, 200 feet) elevation.
Ovophis monticola zhaokentangi, Er-Mi Zhao, 1995
Common name: Gaoligong mountain pitviper
Range: Goaligong Shan, north of Pianma, Lushui County, Yunnan Province, China.
vophis monticola makazayazaya, Seiichi Takahashi, 1922
Common name: Taiwan mountain pitviper
Range: Taiwan: Chuchuku, Arishan, Makazayazaya and Taipei.
- Ovophis monticola, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014)
- Trimeresurus monticola, R. C. Sharma (2004)
- Ovophis monticola, Anita Malhotra et al. (2004)
- Ovophis monticola monticola, Andreas Gumprecht et al. (2004)
- Ovophis monticola, Roy W. McDiarmid, Jonathan A. Campbell & T'Shaka A. Touré (1999)
- Ovophis monticola, Ulrich Manthey & Wolfgang Grossmann (1997)
- Ovophis monticola monticola, Kenneth R. G. Welch (1994)
- Ovophis monticola meridionalis, Kenneth R. G. Welch (1994)
- Ovophis monticola monticola, Philippe Golay et al. (1993)
- Trimeresurus monticola meridionalis, Djoko Tjahjono Iskandar (1986)
- Ovophis monticola meridionalis, Alphonse Richard Hoge & Sylvia A. R. W. Romano-Hoge (1981)
- Trimeresurus monticola, Keith A. Harding & Kenneth R. G. Welch (1980)
- Trimeresurus monticola, Malcolm Arthur Smith (1943)
- Trimeresurus monticola meridionalis, René Léon Bourret (1935)
- Trimeresurus monticola monticola, R. Mell (1929)
- Lachesis monticola, Nelly de Rooij (1917)
- Lachesis monticola, Francis Esmond Wingate Venning (1910)
- Trimeresurus monticola, John Anderson (1871)
- Trimeresurus monticola, Albert Charles Lewis Günther (1864)
Least Concern (IUCN3.1)
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Range map of Ovophis monticola in Thailand
Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The data is not necessarily accurate or complete.
Special thanks to Ton Smits, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Ian Dugdale and many others for their contribution for range data.
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