Thai National Parks

Reptiles of Thailand

Species of Thailand

Equatorial spitting cobra

Thai: งูเห่าทองพ่นพิษ, ngu haow thong ponn phit

Binomial name: Naja sumatrana, Johannes Peter Müller, 1890

Equatorial spitting cobra (Naja sumatrana) also called the black spitting cobra, Malayan spitting cobra, golden spitting cobra, or Sumatran spitting cobra, is a species of spitting cobra found in Southeast Asia.

Description

This species is medium in length, averaging between 0.9 to 1.2 m in length, though they can grow a bit longer to 1.5 m. The body is compressed dorsoventrally and sub-cylindrical posteriorly. The head of this species is elliptical, depressed, and slightly distinct from the neck with a short, rounded snout and large nostrils. Eyes are medium in size with round pupils. Dorsal scales are smooth and strongly oblique. This species of cobra has no hood marks and colouration varies based upon geographical location. There are two colour phases: a yellow form commonly found in Thailand, and a black form found in Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and the islands where it occurs in Indonesia and the Philippines. Juveniles and adults also tend to be of different colour.

Scalation

19-27 rows around hood (normally 21-25), 15-19 just ahead of mid-body; 179-201 ventrals, 40-57 subcaudals; basal subcaudals often undivided.

Distribution

This species of cobra is found in the equatorial Southeast Asian nations of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and in the Philippines. In Indonesia it occurs in the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Bangka, Belitung, and the Riau Archipelago. It may occur in neighboring islands in Indonesia. It is possible that remnant populations still occur in western Java. In the Philippines it was thought to be found only in the island province of Palawan but after further DNA study and analysis of the species found in Palawan, it has been established that species endemic to the island is a separate species called the N. miolepis and not a sumatrana.

Habitat and ecology

This species can be found in elevations up to about 1500 m above sea level in mainly primary and secondary tropical forests (including dense jungle terrain). However, it has also been found in gardens, parks, and in urban areas where it may come in contact with humans. It is a terrestrial and mainly diurnal snake that feeds mainly on rodents and frogs, but will also feed on other snakes, lizards and small mammals. Though not aggressive in nature, these snakes can and will readily spit venom when they are cornered or threatened. They will also strike and bite.

Venom

Like other cobra species, this snake possess postsynaptic neurotoxic venom. The venom may also consist of cardiotoxins and cytotoxins. The venom of the Equatorial spitting cobra exhibited the common characteristic enzymatic activities of Asiatic spitting cobra venoms: low protease, phosphodiesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase and L-amino-acid oxidase activities, moderately high acetylcholinesterase and hyaluronidase activities and high phospholipase A2. Cardiotoxins represented 40% of the snakes venom protein. This species presented an IV of 0.50 µg/g mouse.

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Scientific classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Reptilia
Order
Squamata
Suborder
Serpentes
Family
Elapidae
Genus
Naja
Species
Naja sumatrana

Common names

  • German:
    • Äquatoriale Speikobra
    • Sumatra-Kobra
  • English:
    • Equatorial spitting cobra
    • Sumatran spitting cobra
    • Sumatran cobra
    • Golden spitting cobra
    • Black spitting cobra
  • Thai:
    • งูเห่าทองพ่นพิษ, ngu haow thong ponn phit
    • งูเห่าสุมาตราพ่นพิษ, ngu haow Sumatra ponn phit

Synonyms

  • Naja sumatrana, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2014)
  • Naja (Naja) sumatrana, Van Stanley Bartholomew Wallach et al. (2009)
  • Naja sumatrana, Merel J. Cox et al. (1998)
  • Naja sumatrana, Ulrich Manthey & Wolfgang Grossmann (1997)
  • Naja sumatrana, Wolfgang Wüster & Roger Stephen Thorpe (1989)
  • Naja sputatrix sputatrix, Lingenhöle & Ludwig Trutnau (1989)
  • Naja naja sumatrana, Keith A. Harding & Kenneth R. G. Welch (1980)
  • Naja sputatrix malayae, Paul E. Pieris Deraniyagala (1961)
  • Naja sputatrix miolepis, Paul E. Pieris Deraniyagala (1961)
  • Naja kaouthia sputatrix, Paul E. Pieris Deraniyagala (1960)
  • Naja naja sumatrana, Felix Kopstein (1935)
  • Naja naja leucodira, Robert Mertens (1934)
  • Naja naja paucisquamis, Thomas Barbour (1912)
  • Naja naja miolepis, Griffin (1909)
  • Naja naja sputatrix (part), Leonhard Hess Stejneger (1907)
  • Naia tripudians leucodira, Rosen (1905)
  • Naja tripudians sumatrana, Schenckel (1901)
  • Naja tripudians paucisquamis, Mario Giacinto Peracca (1899)
  • Naia tripudians var leucodira, George Albert Boulenger (1896)
  • Naia tripudians var. miolepis, George Albert Boulenger (1896)
  • Naia tripudians var. caeca, George Albert Boulenger (1896)
  • Naia tripudians var. sputatrix (part.), George Albert Boulenger (1896)
  • Naja sumatrana miolepis, George Albert Boulenger (1896)
  • Naja tripudians var. sumatrana, Johannes Peter Müller (1890)
  • Naja tripudians var. nigra, Wilhelm Karl Hartwich Peters (1859)

Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Distribution map of Equatorial spitting cobra, Naja sumatrana in Thailand
  • Bannang Sata District, Yala
  • Khao Lak - Lam Ru National Park
  • Khao Luang National Park
  • Khao Phra - Bang Khram Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Na Yong District, Trang
  • Palian District, Trang
  • Takua Pa District, Phang Nga
  • Thale Ban National Park
  • Ton Nga-Chang Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Waeng District, Narathiwat

Range map of Naja sumatrana in Thailand

Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The data is not necessarily accurate or complete.

Special thanks to Ton Smits, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Ian Dugdale and many others for their contribution for range data.

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