Species of Thailand
Binomial name: Tephrodornis virgatus, Coenraad Jacob Temminck, 1824
The large woodshrike (Tephrodornis gularis, the name T. virgatus provided as a substitute on insufficient grounds.) is a species in the woodshrike family Tephrodornithidae. The woodshrikes were formerly placed in the Campephagidae (cuckooshrikes) sometimes.
It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. The Malabar woodshrike is sometimes considered conspecific.
The name Lanius gularis was described by Raffles in 1822 (Transactions of the Linnean Society). At about the same time (1824), Temminck published the name Lanius virgatus in his Planches Coloriees (pl. 256, f.1). These, among other related forms, were later placed in the genus Tephrodornis and each recognized as valid species. Richard Bowdler Sharpe (Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum, vol. III, p. 278) retained both as valid, and this treatment perpetuated as recently as 1981 (Smythies, Birds of Borneo).
Further review determined that both gularis and virgatus should be recognized as one species, with the former name designated as the nominate. Dickinson and Dekker discussed the homonymy of Raffles' name, and on the premise that it was unavailable, supplanted it with Temminck's name as the authority. A more obscure Lanius gularis was published in Bechstein (Kurze Uebersicht aller bekannten Vögel oder ihre kennzeichen der Art nach Latham’s General Synopsis of Birds und seinem Index ornithologicus, (1811)), eleven years prior to Raffles.
Since the discovery of the homonymy in 2002, the name virgatus seems to have prevailed as the correct name for the large wood-shrike. However, the action to replace gularis was not justified. In the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) certain provisions were modified, including the adoption of "reversal of precedence." Article 23. 1 stipulates that priority in scientific names applies to "..the relative precedence of homonyms, " among other conditions, and Article 23.9 details the "reversal of precendence, " which requires that a substitution or replacement name be adopted if, among other conditions, "the senior synonym or homonym has not been used as a valid name after 1899." Since the discovery of the homonymy was published subsequent to the fourth edition of the Code, these requirements would need to be met prior to making such a change. Bechstein's name (the senior homonym) being so obscure—having only been cited once prior to Dickinson and Dekker (Index Animalium of Sherborn (and its corresponding reverse index volume)--that the act to adopt virgatus was done on insufficient grounds. Further, it is uncertain as to which species Bechstein's name should be indicated as a synonym of. Therefore, the correct name of the large wood-shrike is Tephrodornis gularis.
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- Tephrodornis virgatus
- นกเฉี่ยวดงหางสีน้ำตาล, nok chiew dong haang see namtaan
Tephrodornis virgatus annectens, Herbert Christopher Robinson & Cecil Boden Kloss, 1918
Range: Northern Thai-Malay Peninsula
Tephrodornis virgatus frenatus, Johann Büttikofer, 1887
Tephrodornis virgatus fretensis, Herbert Christopher Robinson & Cecil Boden Kloss, 1920
Range: Southern Thai-Malay Peninsula and Sumatra
Tephrodornis virgatus hainanus, William Robert Ogilvie-Grant, 1910
Range: North Indochina and Hainan (South China)
Tephrodornis virgatus jugans, Herbert Girton Deignan, 1948
Range: South Myanmar and North Thailand
Tephrodornis virgatus latouchei, Norman Boyd Kinnear, 1925
Range: S/E China (Fujian)
Tephrodornis virgatus mekongensis, Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee, 1946
Range: East and South Thailand, Cambodia and South Indochina
Tephrodornis virgatus pelvicus, Brian Houghton Hodgson, 1837
Range: East Himalayas (Nepal to Assam) to North Myanmar
Tephrodornis virgatus verney, Norman Boyd Kinnear, 1924
Range: S/W Thailand
Tephrodornis virgatus virgatus, Coenraad Jacob Temminck, 1824
Range: Coastal S/W and extreme south Sumatra and Java
- Tephrodornis virgatus, Temminck (1824)
Least Concern (IUCN3.1)
- Bang Lang National Park
- Chiang Dao District, Chiang Mai
- Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary
- Doi Inthanon National Park
- Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park
- Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai
- Doi Suthep-Pui National Park
- Erawan National Park
- Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary
- Hat Noppharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi National Park
- Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary
- Kaeng Krachan National Park
- Khao Banthad Wildlife Sanctuary
- Khao Lak - Lam Ru National Park
- Khao Luang National Park
- Khao Nam Khang National Park
- Khao Phanom Bencha National Park
- Khao Phra - Bang Khram Wildlife Sanctuary
- Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park
- Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary
- Khao Sok National Park
- Khao Yai National Park
- Khlong Hoi Khong District, Songkhla
- Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary
- Khon San District, Chaiyaphum
- Khun Chae National Park
- Kui Buri National Park
- Mae Ping National Park
- Mae Wong National Park
- Mu Ko Lanta National Park
- Mueang Chiang Mai District, Chiang Mai
- Mueang Krabi District, Krabi
- Mueang Surat Thani District, Surat Thani
- Nam Nao National Park
- Nong Ya Plong District, Phetchaburi
- Pa Sang District, Lamphun
- Pak Thale
- Pha Daeng National Park
- Phu Khiao Wildlife Sanctuary
- Sai Yok District, Kanchanaburi
- Sakaerat Environmental Research Station
- San Kala Khiri National Park
- Sri Phang-nga National Park
- Su-ngai Kolok District, Narathiwat
- Tai Rom Yen National Park
- Thai Mueang District, Phang Nga
- Thale Ban National Park
- Thap Lan National Park
- Thong Pha Phum National Park
- Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary
- Ton Pariwat Wildlife Sanctuary
- Yan Ta Khao District, Trang
Range map of Tephrodornis virgatus in Thailand
Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The data is not necessarily accurate or complete.
Special thanks to Ton Smits, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Ian Dugdale and many others for their contribution for range data.
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