Species of Thailand
Thai: นกทะเลขาแดงธรรมดา, nok tha-le kaa daeng tam-ma-daa
Binomial name: Tringa totanus, Carolus Linnaeus, 1758
:For the plant called "redshank", see Persicaria maculosa.
The common redshank or simply redshank (Tringa totanus) is an Eurasian wader in the large family Scolopacidae.
Description and systematics
Common redshanks in breeding plumage are a marbled brown color, slightly lighter below. In winter plumage they become somewhat lighter-toned and less patterned, being rather plain greyish-brown above and whitish below. They have red legs and a black-tipped red bill, and show white up the back and on the wings in flight.
The spotted redshank (T. erythropus), which breeds in the Arctic, has a longer bill and legs; it is almost entirely black in breeding plumage and very pale in winter. It is not a particularly close relative of the common redshank, but rather belongs to a high-latitude lineage of largish shanks. T. totanus on the other hand is closely related to the marsh sandpiper (T. stagnatilis), and closer still to the small wood sandpiper (T. glareola). The ancestors of the latter and the common redshank seem to have diverged around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, about 5-6 million years ago. These three subarctic- to temperate-region species form a group of smallish shanks with have red or yellowish legs, and in breeding plumage are generally a subdued light brown above with some darker mottling, and have somewhat diffuse small brownish spots on the breast and neck.
Several subspecies have been identified. These include:
- T. t. robusta: identified by Schiøler, 1919 found in Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
- T. t. ussuriensis: identified by Buturlin 1934 found in southern Siberia, Mongolia and east Asia
- T. t. terrignotae: identified by Meinertzhagen, R & Meinertzhagen, A, 1926 found in southern Manchuria and eastern China
- T. t. craggi: identified by Hale, 1971 found in north west China
- T. t. eurhina: identified by Oberholser, 1900 found in Tajikistan, north India and Tibet
It is a widespread breeding bird across temperate Eurasia. It is a migratory species, wintering on coasts around the Mediterranean, on the Atlantic coast of Europe from Great Britain southwards, and in South Asia. They are uncommon vagrants outside these areas; on Palau in Micronesia for example, the species was recorded in the mid-1970s and in 2000.
They are wary and noisy birds which will alert everything else with their loud piping call. Like most waders, they feed on small invertebrates. Redshanks will nest in any wetland, from damp meadows to saltmarsh, often at high densities. They lay 3-5 eggs.
The common redshank is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.
It is widely distributed and quite plentiful in some regions, and thus not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.
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- Tringa totanus
- English: Common redshank
- French: Chevalier gambette
- Thai: นกทะเลขาแดงธรรมดา, nok tha-le kaa daeng tam-ma-daa
Tringa totanus craggi, Hale, 1971
Range: Northwest China
Tringa totanus eurhina, Harry Church Oberholser, 1900
Range: Tajikistan, north India and Tibet
Tringa totanus robusta, Eiler Theodor Lehn Schiøler, 1919
Range: Iceland and the Faroe Islands.
Tringa totanus terrignotae, Richard Meinertzhagen & Annie Meinertzhagen, 1926
Range: Southern Manchuria and eastern China
Tringa totanus ussuriensis, Sergei Aleksandrovich Buturlin, 1934
Range: Southern Siberia, Mongolia and east Asia
- Totanus totanus, Carolus Linnaeus (1758)
Least Concern (IUCN3.1)
- Amphawa District, Samut Songkhram
- Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi
- Ban Phai District, Khon Kaen
- Bang Pakong District, Chachoengsao
- Bang Phra Non-hunting Area
- Bang Pu Recreation Centre
- Borabue District, Maha Sarakham
- Bueng Boraped Non-hunting Area
- Doi Lo District, Chiang Mai
- Hat Chao Mai National Park
- Hat Noppharat Thara - Mu Ko Phi Phi National Park
- Hat Wanakon National Park
- Hat Yai District, Songkhla
- Huai Chorakhe Mak Reservoir Non-hunting Area
- Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham
- Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park
- Khao Yoi District, Phetchaburi
- Klaeng District, Rayong
- Ko Libong
- Kumphawapi District, Udon Thani
- Laem Pak Bia
- Mae Ai District, Chiang Mai
- Mueang Chonburi District, Chonburi
- Mueang Kalasin District, Kalasin
- Mueang Khon Kaen District, Khon Kaen
- Mueang Krabi District, Krabi
- Mueang Pattani District, Pattani
- Mueang Phetchaburi District, Phetchaburi
- Mueang Phuket District, Phuket
- Mueang Samut Sakhon District, Samut Sakhon
- Mueang Samut Songkhram District, Samut Songkhram
- Mueang Satun District, Satun
- Mueang Suphanburi District, Suphan Buri
- Mueang Trat District, Trat
- Nong Song Hong District, Khon Kaen
- Pak Phli District, Nakhon Nayok
- Pak Thale
- Pran Buri Forest Park
- Samut Prakan Province
- Sanam Bin Reservoir Non-hunting Area
- Takua Pa District, Phang Nga
- Thanyaburi District, Pathum Thani
Range map of Tringa totanus in Thailand
Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The data is not necessarily accurate or complete.
Special thanks to Ton Smits, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Ian Dugdale and many others for their contribution for range data.
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