Species of Thailand

White-crowned hornbill

Berenicornis comatus, Thomas Stamford Raffles, 1822

(In Thai: นกเงือกหัวหงอก)

The white-crowned hornbill (Berenicornis comatus), also known as the long-crested hornbill or white-crested hornbill (leading to easy confusion with the African white-crested hornbill), is a species of hornbill.

Taxonomy

It is monotypic within the genus Berenicornis, although rarely the white-crested hornbill is also included in this genus, and the white-crowned hornbill is sometimes placed in genus Aceros instead.

Description

Berenicornis comatus is a large hornbill, reaching a length of 83 - 102 cm and a weight of 1.3 - 1.5 kg. Females are smaller than males. The plumage is black and white. The head, neck, breast and tail are white, while the remaining plumage is black. It has a white crown feathers erected in a crest (hence the common name). Between the eye and the bill and on the throat there is bare dark blue skin. The bill is mainly black, with a yellowish base. Like most hornbills, it has a blackish casque on the top if its bill. The female has a black neck and underparts.

Diet

These birds are territorial and feed on various fruits, lizards, arthropods and larvae.

Distribution

This species is found in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.

Habitat

This bird inhabits rainforests at low and medium altitudes, usually at an elevation below 900 meters. It may also be found on fruit, oil-palm and rubber plantations. It is threatened by habitat destruction.

Behavior

The female lays two white eggs in a tree hole, then seals herself in by blocking the entrance to the nest with droppings, debris and mud. The male, and other adults and young forming a cooperative group, feed the breeding female and the chicks through a narrow hole. The female breaks the "wall" and leaves the nest when the chicks are able to fly.

Threats

The forest habitat that this bird depends on has been heavily declining in recent years. Due to this, the white-crowned hornbill was uplisted from near threatened to endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2018.

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Category / Seasonal Status

Wiki listed status (concerning Thai population): Endangered

BCST Category: Recorded in an apparently wild state within the last 50 years

BCST Seasonal status: Resident or presumed resident

Scientific classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Aves
Order
Bucerotiformes
Family
Bucerotidae
Genus
Berenicornis
Species
Berenicornis comatus

Common names

  • Thai: นกเงือกหัวหงอก

Conservation status

Near Threatened (IUCN3.1)

Near Threatened (IUCN3.1)

Endangered (IUCN3.1)

Endangered (BirdLife)

Endangered (IUCN3.1)

Endangered (ONEP)

Endangered (IUCN3.1)

Endangered (BCST)

Photos

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White-crowned hornbill

Copyright Worrakat

White-crowned hornbill
White-crowned hornbill (male)

Range Map

Distribution map of White-crowned hornbill, Berenicornis comatus in Thailand
  • Bang Lang National Park
  • Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kaeng Krachan National Park
  • Kaeng Krung National Park
  • Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Khao Luang National Park
  • Khao Phanom Bencha National Park
  • Khao Phra - Bang Khram Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Khao Sok National Park
  • Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Kui Buri National Park
  • San Kala Khiri National Park
  • Sri Phang-nga National Park
  • Thale Ban National Park
Range map of Berenicornis comatus in Thailand