Thai National Parks

Birds of Thailand

Species of Thailand

Short-toed snake eagle

Thai: เหยี่ยวนิ้วสั้น, yiow niw san

Binomial name: Circaetus gallicus, Johann Friedrich Gmelin, 1788

The short-toed snake eagle (Circaetus gallicus), also known as short-toed eagle, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, buzzards and harriers.

Range and habitat

This is an Old World species spread throughout the Mediterranean basin and into Russia and the Middle East, and into parts of Asia, mainly in the Indian Subcontinent and also further east in some Indonesian islands).

Those present on the northern edge of the Mediterranean and other parts of Europe migrate mainly to sub-Saharan Africa north of the equator, leaving in September/October and returning in April/May. In the Middle and Far East the populations are resident. In Europe, it is most numerous in Spain where it is fairly common but elsewhere it is rare in many parts of its range. A bird on the Isles of Scilly, Britain, in October 1999 was the first confirmed record for that country.

The short-toed snake eagle is found in open cultivated plains, arid stony deciduous scrub areas and foothills and semi-desert areas. It requires trees for nesting.

Description

Adults are 62 – 67 cm ftin long with a 170 – 185 cm ftin wingspan and weigh 1.2 - 2.3 kg. They can be recognised in the field by their predominantly white underside, the upper parts being greyish brown. The chin, throat and upper breast are a pale, earthy brown. The tail has 3 or 4 bars. Additional indications are an owl-like rounded head, brightly yellow eyes and lightly barred under wing.

The short-toed snake eagle is an accomplished flyer and spends more time on the wing than do most members of its genus. It favours soaring over hill slopes and hilltops on updraughts, and it does much of its hunting from this position at heights of up to 500 m. When quartering open country it frequently hovers like a kestrel. When it soars it does so on flattish wings.

Behaviour

Its prey is mostly reptiles, mainly snakes, but also some lizards. Sometimes they become entangled with larger snakes and battle on the ground. Occasionally, they prey on small mammals up to the size of a rabbit, and rarely birds and large insects.

This eagle is generally very silent. On occasions, it emits a variety of musical whistling notes. When breeding, it lays only one egg. It can live up to 17 years.

The short-toed snake eagle has suffered a steep decline in numbers and range in Europe and is now rare and still decreasing in several countries due to changes in agriculture and land use. It needs protection. In the middle and far eastern part of its range, this species is not yet threatened.

Historical material

In his description of the species, Buffon says that he kept one of these eagles in captivity and observed its behavior. The captive bird ate mice and frogs, and he states that the Jean-de-blanc was well known by French farmers for raiding poultry.

This article uses material from Wikipedia released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike Licence 3.0. Eventual photos shown in this page may or may not be from Wikipedia, please see the license details for photos in photo by-lines.

Videos of Short-toed snake eagle

  • Short-toed snake eagle

    Short-toed snake eagle

  • Short-toed snake eagle

    Short-toed snake eagle

Scientific classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Aves
Order
Accipitriformes
Family
Accipitridae
Genus
Circaetus
Species
Circaetus gallicus

Common names

  • Thai: เหยี่ยวนิ้วสั้น, yiow niw san

Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Distribution map of Short-toed snake eagle, Circaetus gallicus in Thailand

Range map of Circaetus gallicus in Thailand

Important note; our range maps are based on limited data we have collected. The data is not necessarily accurate or complete.

Special thanks to Ton Smits, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Ian Dugdale and many others for their contribution for range data.

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