Species of Thailand

Black-spined toad

Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider, 1799

(In Thai: คางคกบ้าน)

Duttaphrynus melanostictus is commonly called Asian common toad, Asian toad, black-spectacled toad, common Sunda toad and Javanese toad. It is probably a complex of more than one toad species that is widely distributed in South and Southeast Asia.

The species grows to about 20 cm long. The species breeds during the monsoons and the tadpoles are black. Young toads may be seen in large numbers after the monsoons.

Characteristics

The top of the head has several bony ridges, along the edge of the snout (canthal ridge), in front of the eye (pre-orbital), above the eye (supra-orbital), behind the eye (post-orbital), and a short one between the eye and ear (orbito-tympanic); The snout is short and blunt and the space between the eyes is broader than the upper eyelid width. The ear drum or tympanum is very distinct and is at least as wide as two thirds the diameter of the eye. The first finger is often longer than the second and the toes at least half webbed. A warty tubercle is found just before the junction of the thigh and shank (sub-articular tubercle) and two moderate ones are on the shank (metatarsus). There is no skin fold along the tarsus. The "knee" (tarso-metatarsal articulation) reaches the tympanum or the eye when the hind leg is held parallel along the side of the body. The dorsal side is covered with spiny warts. The parotoids are prominent, kidney-shaped or elliptical and elongated. The dorsal side is yellowish or brownish and the spines and ridges are black. The underside is unmarked or spotted. Males have a subgular vocal sac and black pads on the inner fingers that help in holding the female during copulation.

Distribution and habitat

Asian common toads occur widely from northern Pakistan through Nepal, Bangladesh, India including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia and southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau to Malaysia, Singapore, and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Anambas and Natuna Islands. They have been recorded from sea level up to 1800 m altitude, and live mostly in disturbed lowland habitats, from upper beaches and riverbanks to human-dominated agricultural and urban areas. They are uncommon in closed forests.

They were introduced to the Indonesian islands of Bali, Sulawesi, and Ambon and to (Indonesian) New Guinea at Manokwari on the Vogelkop Peninsula. The species is now common at Sentani in far eastern Papua Province. The species arrived in Madagascar in 2011 at the port of Toamasina and by 2014 was found in a 100 km2 zone around that city

Ecology and behaviour

Asian common toads breed in still and slow-flowing rivers and temporary and permanent ponds and pools. Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover such as rocks, leaf-litter, logs, and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving waterbodies.

They are often seen at night under street lamps especially in times when winged termites swarm. They have been noted to feed on a wide range of invertebrates including scorpions. Tadpoles grown in sibling groups metamorphosed faster than those that were kept in mixed groups. Tadpoles have been shown to be able to recognize kin.

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Scientific classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Amphibia
Order
Anura
Family
Bufonidae
Genus
Duttaphrynus
Species
Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Common names

  • English:
    • Asian common toad
    • Black-spined toad
    • Black-spectacled toad
    • Common sunda toad
    • Javanese toad
    • Asian Toad
  • Thai:
    • คางคกบ้าน
    • คางขาก

Synonyms

  • Ansonia kamblei, Ravichandran and Pillai (1990)
  • Bufo melanostictus

Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Least Concern (IUCN3.1)

Photos

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Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Range Map

Distribution map of Black-spined toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus in Thailand
  • Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo
  • Ban Chang District, Rayong
  • Ban Phue District, Udon Thani
  • Ban Pong District, Ratchaburi
  • Bang Lamung District, Chonburi
  • Bang Phli District, Samut Prakan
  • Bang Saphan District, Prachuap Khiri Khan
  • Bangkok Province
  • Bo Rai District, Trat
  • Chaloem Phra Kiat District, Nakhon Si Thammarat
  • Chaloem Phra Kiat District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Chok Chai District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Doi Inthanon National Park
  • Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai
  • Doi Suthep - Pui National Park
  • Don Tan District, Mukdahan
  • Hang Chat District, Lampang
  • Hua Hin District, Prachuap Khiri Khan
  • Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Huai Yang Waterfall National Park
  • Kaeng Krachan District, Phetchaburi
  • Kaeng Krachan National Park
  • Kapo Waterfall Forest Park
  • Khao Chamao - Khao Wong National Park
  • Khao Khitchakut National Park
  • Khao Kho District, Phetchabun
  • Khao Laem National Park
  • Khao Phanom Bencha National Park
  • Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park
  • Khao Sok National Park
  • Khao Yai Da
  • Khao Yai National Park
  • Ko Chang District, Trat
  • Ko Lanta District, Krabi
  • Ko Lanta National Park
  • Ko Samui District, Surat Thani
  • Ko Tao
  • Kra Buri District, Ranong
  • Lat Phrao District, Bangkok
  • Mueang Chumphon District, Chumphon
  • Mueang Kanchanaburi District, Kanchanaburi
  • Mueang Krabi District, Krabi
  • Mueang Loei District, Loei
  • Mueang Maha Sarakham District, Maha Sarakham
  • Mueang Mukdahan District, Mukdahan
  • Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Mueang Nakhon Sawan District, Nakhon Sawan
  • Mueang Nonthaburi District, Nonthaburi
  • Mueang Phetchaburi District, Phetchaburi
  • Mueang Phuket District, Phuket
  • Mueang Rayong District, Rayong
  • Non Thai District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Pak Phanang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat
  • Pang Sida National Park
  • Pha Daeng National Park
  • Phatthana Nikhom District, Lopburi
  • Phu Khiao District, Chaiyaphum
  • Phu Khiao Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Phuket Province
  • Prachantakham District, Prachinburi
  • Sakaerat Environmental Research Station
  • Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi
  • Sung Noen District, Nakhon Ratchasima
  • Surin Islands
  • Takua Pa District, Phang Nga
  • Tarutao National Marine Park
  • Tha Mai District, Chanthaburi
  • Tha Takiap District, Chachoengsao
  • Tha Yang District, Phetchaburi
  • Thalang District, Phuket
  • That Phanom District, Nakhon Phanom
  • Thung Salaeng Luang National Park
  • Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Ubolratana District, Khon Kaen
  • Watthana Nakhon District, Sa Kaeo
  • Wiang Kaen District, Chiang Rai
Range map of Duttaphrynus melanostictus in Thailand